Designing Road Systems to accommodate the limitations, capabilities and needs of road users in Developing Countries
Over the years, several researches have been conducted with corresponding improvements to reduce road traffic crashes especially the ones involving vulnerable road users. In spite of the progress made so far in incorporating the safety of road users in road systems design, road traffic crashes is still on the rise in most developing countries.
This paper presents an exploratory analysis of road system and usage using Applied Cognitive Work Analysis (ACWA) ith a view to identifying the limitations, capabilities and needs of road users; and specifies how roadway elements can best be designed to support roadusers in improving performance. Data were gathered through observational studies of selected road usage scenarios in Nigeria. Applied Cognitive Work Analysis (ACWA) was used to examine the human-roadway system interaction for tasks-system constraints and possible human errors. The results of the analysis were compiled as a design artefact that informs the design of road signage, layout and protective furniture in improving the performance and safety of road users. To effectively design roadway systems in improving the safety of road users, sufficient human factors information and concepts can be generated by the results of Applied Cognitive Work Analysis (ACWA) on human-roadway system interaction.
Over the past 100 years, the world of workplace safety has experienced dramatic improvements that have saved thousands of lives. During this period, we have seen safety management go through different developmental stages with different areas of focus, action logic, tools and measures of success. Initially, improvement in safety performance was driven by regulation, followed by management systems and then behavioural-based safety systems in recent past.
Going back in time, the first effort by organizations to ensure safety of workers was a response to safety legislations. At that time, organizations will have to be aware of safety regulations and commit resources in order to comply with them, reducing noncompliance and avoiding citations/fines. The success of their safety efforts were measured in terms of number of citations and fines they received within a given period. After this era, organizations shifted focus to total quality principles and behavioural psychology in turn to improve on safety performance. The goals during these eras were to reduce/prevent injuries and reduce unsafe behaviors using training, investigations, audit, observations and interventions as tools. Measures of success were injury rates, conformance to standards and percentage of safe behaviors. With all these, which most companies adopt, they have not been able to produce extra-ordinary safety performance of zero incident, hence the need to shift focus to a new approach that will guarantee the achievement of zero incident and sustained extra-ordinary safety performance.